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Muqadas

Muqadas

I'm Muqadas, I am an M.Phi graduated doing majors in Marketing. I have gained a lot of experience in the past  years in various projects and have excelled in writing.

According to the firm, there are currently 700 people waiting to fly.

Virgin Galactic, a space tourism business, claims that after reopening ticket sales in August, 100 passengers purchased more expensive tickets to fly on the company's suborbital spaceplane. That implies the business has roughly 700 ticket holders for short space tourism flights, which is about 300 less than the 1,000 seats Virgin Galactic intends to sell before its ships begin commercial flights. The revelation was revealed during the company's third-quarter results report, which was released on Monday.

 

Customers Interest Towards Space Tourism 

Customers have shown considerable interest in Virgin Galactic's suborbital vehicles, according to business management, although they may have to wait a long time to fly. After reopening ticket sales in August, the corporation sold around 100 tickets for $450,000 apiece, according to its fiscal third-quarter financial results issued Nov. 8. Customers who have booked suborbital flights now number around 700. The new customers each paid a deposit of $150,000, with $25,000 of that being non-refundable.

The new clients came from a group that had already signed up to be first in line when ticket sales began, paying a $1,000 deposit to do so, according to Virgin Galactic CEO Michael Colglazier during an earnings call. More than 60,000 people contacted the business to express interest in purchasing tickets after the company's July trip to space with company owner Richard Branson on board. He explained that the initial sales were just a test of the procedure that the company will employ for future ticket sales, which included "fairly lengthy" one-on-one calls with potential consumers. The percentage of sales calls that result in confirmed space travel reservations, according to the company insights.

 

The CEO’s Intake on Customer’s Interest

When Virgin Galactic begins commercial service, the company hopes to have 1,000 customers. "We are quite hopeful and optimistic" about achieving that objective, the CEO added, with the initial round of sales efforts winding up by the end of the year and the wider audience of people who indicated interest after July's mission reaching out in the first quarter of 2022. Customers will, however, have to wait a while before traveling. Virgin Galactic reported on 14th October 2021 that the VSS Unity “SpaceShipTwo” vehicle and “VMS Eve”, the “WhiteKnightTwo” plane that carries SpaceShipTwo, had begun an extended maintenance period.

Richard Branson, the creator of Virgin Galactic, recently flew aboard VSS Unity, flying overhead at Spaceport America in New Mexico, to showcase the company's space tourism experience. In the company's financial report, Virgin Galactic CEO Michael Colglazier stated that they are approaching their fleet improvement period with a clear path for strengthening the longevity, dependability, and predictability of their spacecraft in readiness for commercial operation next year. “The demand for space flight is huge,” Colglazier remarked, “and we've been selling tickets ahead of schedule” he further added. This indicates the huge demand for our goods and the value of the one-of-a-kind experience we provide, he further added.

 

The Reopening Of Tickets By Virgin Galactic

Virgin Galactic resumed ticket sales barely a month after its founder, Richard Branson safely flew to the verge of space and back in July onboard the company's flagship space plane (VSS Unity). Branson flew to a height of more than 53 miles with two test pilots and three other passengers from Spaceport America in New Mexico before returning. The mission was a key moment, having been pushed through nine days before rival Blue Origin's creator, Jeff Bezos, went to the frontier of space and back. And it appeared to be a huge success at the time.

However, a September article in the New Yorker reported that when Branson's flight came back to earth, it had departed from its approved flight path. The FAA temporarily stopped Virgin Galactic while it investigated the incident, however, the problem was eventually fixed and the firm was authorized to operate again in mid-September.

 

Some Insights About Virgin Galactic 

Virgin Galactic recorded a 53 million dollars loss in free cash flow for the quarter, with 2.5 million dollars spent on sponsorship revenue, tied to the July trip and government payload services deals. Hence, to upgrade work on VMS Eve and VMS Unity, along with Delta Class and new mothership work, the business expects a deficit cash flow of $80 - 95 million in the 4rth quarter.

 

Sources:

https://spacenews.com/virgin-galactic-adds-100-customers-after-resuming-ticket-sales/

https://www.theverge.com/2021/11/8/22770864/virgin-galactic-q3-earnings-2021-tickets-700-customers

https://www.digitaltrends.com/news/virgin-galactic-is-selling-space-tourism-tickets-for-450k/

 

 

On Nov. 10, SpaceX successfully deployed 4 NASA astronauts to the International Space Station (ISS). They'll arrive at the station on Thursday evening. The mission, codenamed Crew-3, will be SpaceX's fourth crewed spacecraft and will transport NASA astronauts named "Tom Marshburn, Kayla Barron, Raja Chari, and Matthias Maurer from European Space Agency " to ISS for a six-month mission. It’s the company's 5th time sending people to space. The astronauts will spend the following day in orbit, orbiting the Earth in SpaceX's Crew Dragon capsule, before they land with ISS.

After a series of delays, the crew departed at 9:03 p.m. ET from NASA's Kennedy Space Center in Cape Canaveral, Florida, atop one of SpaceX's Falcon 9 rockets. After successfully launching the Crew Dragon into low Earth orbit, the Falcon 9 returned to Earth and landed on SpaceX's drone ship in the Atlantic, which is one of the company's iconic rocket landings. As part of NASA's Commercial Crew Program, this is SpaceX's third operational crewed flight. Each trip, including Crew-3, is expected to last 6 months, with SpaceX responsible for both launching and returning the crew. The Crew-3 astronauts are expected to return to Earth in the spring of 2022.

 

The Crew Dragon by SpaceX

The Crew Dragon, an automated capsule with elegant seats and interactive touchscreens, is SpaceX's primary means of bringing people into orbit. The capsule is also built to dock with the space station autonomously, without any need for input from the people on board. On November 11th, at 7:10 p.m. ET, the Crew Dragon carrying the Crew-3 crew attempted to dock with the ISS, after which the astronauts opened the door and joined the station about an hour later. They were accompanied by NASA’s astronaut “Mark Vande Hei” and Russian cosmonauts “Anton Shkaplerov and Pyotr Dubrov”, who are currently residing on the ISS. Around 9:20 p.m. ET, the seven people performed a brief welcome ceremony within the station (Barron is the 601st person to go to space, whereas Maurer is the 600th).

However, the Crew-3 group narrowly avoided colliding with another group of astronauts on the space station. On Monday, a crew of 4 astronauts from SpaceX's Crew-2 mission descended from the International Space Station, flying down to Earth in their own Crew Dragon and crashing down in the Gulf of Mexico. Crew-3 was scheduled to launch before the Crew-2 astronauts return, but the launch was repeatedly postponed. NASA, therefore, decided to return Crew-2 members ahead of Crew-3.

"Sometimes when you attempt to fly on Halloween, you get a trick rather than a treat," Chari said to SpaceX mission control before the launch, talking about the fact that their mission was scheduled for October 31st. Instead, flying on Veteran's Day was an honor, according to Chari. The return of Crew-2 took place on Monday, Nov 8th, and the astronauts landed safely. On the way down to the ocean, one of the capsule's four primary parachutes opened a bit slower than the others. Even though the capsule safely landed the crew, neither NASA nor SpaceX believed it was necessary to postpone today's flight.

Furthermore, NASA stated that the time between crash landing and takeoff was the shortest in space flight history to carry humans into space.

 

There Were Some Issues during the Mission

The Crew-3 launch comes after another set of four astronauts returned from the International Space Station on Monday, completing the Crew-2 mission. Both missions took place as SpaceX and NASA attempted to resolve difficulties with the toilet design onboard SpaceX's Crew Dragon spaceship. During their nine-hour return journey from ISS on Monday, the Crew-2 astronauts were without a toilet choice due to the issue.

The problem with the capsule used for launching the Crew-3 mission on Wednesday has been resolved, according to NASA and SpaceX.

Nasa’s Intake on This

Before today's launch, NASA had to do a tiny movement with the International Space Station to ensure it was not damaged by space debris. The engines on a docked Russian Progress module started up at 3:30 p.m. ET, lifting the space station significantly higher and out of the way of debris from an ancient Chinese satellite known as Fengyun-1C. The boost made it possible for the Crew-3 team to safely arrive at the space station.

 

Sources:

https://www.theverge.com/2021/11/10/22772552/spacex-crew-3-dragon-launch-nasa-interenational-space-station-success

 

https://edition.cnn.com/2021/11/10/tech/spacex-crew-3-launch-what-to-know-scn/index.html

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQcUo0IHNFk

 

https://www.space.com/news/live/spacex-crew-dragon-mission-updates

 

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pB-jj5HQ7WA

 

Yusaku Maezawa, a Japanese fashion billionaire, has chosen 20 finalists to go to the moon with him “for free.”

Yusaku Maezawa, the Japanese fashion magnate who signed up to be SpaceX's first client to go to the moon on board a Starship spaceship in 2023, has been hunting for a few like-minded space enthusiasts to join him on the trip, which will be fully funded. The billionaire has limited the category to only 20 applicants, and the search is currently in the final stages of screening. Maezawa had his eyes on twenty participants after four months and over a million submissions. A selection of candidates was featured in a YouTube video broadcast by Maezawa the same day, stating what they planned to accomplish on the trip.

The finalists represent a diverse spectrum of artistic disciplines, including painters, choreographers, DJs, photographers, and even gold medalists from the Olympics.

 

About Yusaku Maezawa

Maezawa is the creator of Zozotown, a Japanese fast-fashion retailer. Maezawa, an enthusiastic art collector, narrowed his search to painters. However, the definition is ambiguous. "Aren't all people who accomplish something creative with their life artists?" If you identify yourself as an artist, you are an artist," the entrepreneur remarked while announcing the Project dearMoon hunt in March. The 45 years old billionaire claims that he would "pay for the whole voyage," which means that everyone who joins him will be able to travel for free. Maezawa gained his wealth by launching the fashion retail firm Zozotown, which he sold a shareholding to SoftBank in 2019 and resigned therefrom.

 

Some Insights Regarding The Crew

The 45 years old billionaire uploaded a video on his YouTube channel on Thursday, July 16 regarding the candidate’s selection for the final process. After getting over a million entries from 249 nations, Maezawa explained in the 5:33 video that they are currently in the final phases of evaluating who would be joining him on his lunar mission.

A ballet dancer with a Ph.D. in Atomic and Laser Physics from Oxford, a Pulitzer-winning photojournalist, an LGBTQ spokesperson for the European Parliament, and others were included in the video he published on his channel on YouTube. It also included Tim Dodd “The Astronaut” and famous DJ Steve Aoki, who explained why they should join Yusaku Maezawa's 8-person lunar mission.

 

About dearMoon Mission by SpaceX

The “dearMoon” mission will go to the moon in 3 days, loop around it in orbit for 3 days, and then come back within 3 days (everything will happen in 3 days' time period). Musk further said that, in addition to being the first private lunar trip, the rocket's flight path implies it will travel far beyond the Apollo missions. "We intend people to go far on this trip than any person has ever gone from planet Earth," Musk stated.

Yusaku Maezawa is leading the mission, which is known as dearMoon, and has spent an unknown price to realize his ambition of traveling to the moon. However, we haven't got much of an idea who he would invite along for the dearMoon project, which he planned to be something like toward a civilian art project till now. Since it was initially announced in 2018, the mission has evolved significantly. Maezawa intended to get artists aboard the Starship and take them on a cycle around Earth's sole natural satellite with him. However, early this year, he modified the procedure and made spaces available to almost everyone, encouraging “aspiring lunar explorers” to register for a ticket onboard the Starship and then create videos explaining why they would like to go with him.

 

Interesting Information 

Before the expedition in March 2021, the wealthy entrepreneur had also tried to build a "matchmaking" TV program aimed at finding a girlfriend that will accompany him to the moon. Maezawa dropped the project after receiving a lot of backlashes online. Given Richard Branson's recent trip to the edge of space in a Virgin Galactic spacecraft and former Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos' scheduled to launch from Earth, it looks that now is a good time to have gathered enough wealth to leave earth for a bit. However, critics of the so-called "billionaire space race" have labeled the missions "ego ventures" and declared them scientifically pointless. There are still a few years left in Maezawa's appeal.

 

https://www.cnbc.com/2021/03/02/yusaku-maezawa-opens-up-public-seats-on-spacex-starship-moon-flight.html

 

https://observer.com/2021/08/spacex-moon-tourist-japanese-billionaire-finalize-crew/

 

https://www.cnet.com/news/blue-origin-loses-legal-challenge-over-nasas-choice-of-spacex-and-starship/

 

https://www.cnet.com/news/spacex-moon-mission-billionaire-reveals-who-might-get-a-ticket-to-ride-starship/

 

https://www.tesmanian.com/blogs/tesmanian-blog/dearmoon-1

 

https://www.sciencetimes.com/articles/32334/20210718/yuzaku-maesawa-japanese-billionaire-behind-spacex-dearmoon-mission-hints-wholl.htm

 

Reaching to the stars is a dream come true for the vast majority of people. Dennis Tito became the first American to walk on the moon on April 28, 2001. Tito, a billionaire businessman, spent $20 million for a trip to the International Space Station on the Russian Soyuz spacecraft. Only seven individuals have followed suit in the last two decades, but that figure is expected to increase in the next year alone. It appears that the emergence of commercial space firms will make it simpler for the general public to travel into space.

Now a question arises, what’s the purpose of space tourism? What’s with the hype?? Well, let’s take a look below to find that out!!!

 

Introduction to Space Tourism

Space tourism is not a new or even a twenty-first-century idea. In the 1970s, NASA foresaw the potential for space tourism. Before the first launch of the space shuttle in 1981, early plans called for a cargo bay layout that could hold up to 74 people, making it suitable for trips with bigger crews or even tourists. As an example of a job perk, several of the first non-government astronauts were sponsored by corporations. Dr. Ulf Merbold of Germany, and MIT engineer Byron Lichtenberg, both of whom served as mission specialists on STS-9 in 1983. Christa McAuliffe, NASA's first astronaut, and first space instructor gained faith in NASA's Space Flight Participant program as a result of this. The Challenger accident in 1986, however, put the program and the whole shuttle program back, for a decade.

Although space tourism has been put on hold, it has not been completely shelved. To compete with NASA, self-made billionaires such as Bezos and Branson set out to create their space firms to provide tourism services while NASA remained focused on governmental and scientific goals. After two decades of development, the technology has finally reached the point where both Bezos Blue Origin and Branson's Virgin Galactic have sent their founders into suborbital space within a short period.

 

Types of Space Tourism

Following are the types that are currently offered to both astronauts and civilians.

 

  1. Orbital Space Flight

An orbital spaceflight is one during which a spacecraft is placed on a trajectory that permits it to stay in orbit for a minimum of one cycle/orbit. One orbit is a cycle of 90 minutes in space respectively. The space flight will remain in orbit for 90 minutes just like how a satellite stays in space. The time duration is usually short for this kind of trip to space. The speed of the spacecraft should be equal to orbital velocity.

 

  1. Sub-Orbital Space Fight 

The atmosphere or surface of gravitating body where it was first launched intersects the trajectory of a suborbital spacecraft, so it will not complete one orbital rotation (it will not become an artificial satellite) or achieve orbital velocity. The speed of spacecraft here is below the orbital velocity.

 

  1. High Altitude Jet Space Flight

A high altitude jet space flight is a type of fight where you can go as high as 20-22km, but at least 17km assured. There will be no one else flying higher than those onboard the International Space Station (ISS) at this time. The earth's curvature is obvious from this point on.

 

  1. Zero-Gravity Space Flight

Because the spacecraft is constantly changing velocity in its orbit to keep it from being dragged into the atmosphere, astronauts onboard experience zero gravity or weightlessness on a space station. As a result, individuals feel as though they are weightless or in Zero Gravity.

 

The goal of Space Tourism

Following are the goals of space tourism:

 

  1. Easily Accessible Sub-orbital Trips

The suborbital flight will most certainly be the first subsector of space tourism to emerging, but it could also be the shortest trip. Blue Origin, which is owned by Jeff Bezos, is testing its New Shepard system, which will take passengers to the edge of space in a capsule that separates from a tiny rocket and returns to Earth using parachutes. Virgin Galactic, founded by Richard Branson, is based on a spaceplane launched from a carrier aircraft with a rocket motor that accelerates up and transports people far into the atmosphere. Both firms' shuttle systems are meant to take passengers more than 50 miles beyond the Earth's atmosphere, giving consumers the sensation of weightlessness for a few minutes.

Blue Origin's SpaceShipTwo will fly its second human spaceflight test on December 11, with Virgin Galactic's SpaceShipTwo aiming for early 2021.

 

  1. Promoting Orbital Tourism

Another significant emphasis of governmental organizations and private space firms is orbital tourism, which includes staying in space for at least one complete orbit, with the long-term objective of reaching the moon and Mars. Beginning this year, Boeing, SpaceX, and Axiom Space intend to fly visitors to the International Space Station aboard commercial spacecraft. In addition, SpaceX is collaborating with Space Adventures to launch four passengers into low Earth orbit for a few days in late 2021 or early 2022. Orbital holidays are expected to become a popular trend as more firms investigate in-space tourism.

Space infrastructure firms have already hauled in a combined $3.6 billion this year, indicating that orbital tourist infrastructure, including orbital and lunar-based hotels, is set to become profitable.

 

  1. Investment Opportunities

Private space businesses are investing heavily in space tourism, and organizations such as UBS see access to space as a gateway to further financial potential. More next-generation engineers will enter the space tourism sector due to the variety of possibilities and innovation, gradually lowering the barriers to entry, increasing competition, lowering prices, and ultimately democratizing space travel for ordinary citizens. Of course, there are critical safety, comfort, and health considerations to be made.

Before visitors may travel to space, they must undergo training, medical exams, and sign liability releases.

 

Conclusion

Although space tourism will be a tiny part of the market, it will benefit space sector a lot. When space tourism becomes popular, it will have a beneficial influence on many socioeconomic variables on Earth, such as job creation, citizen education about space, and the development of new solar-based energy infrastructure

 

Sources:

https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/social-sciences/space-tourism

https://space.nss.org/why-space-tourism/

https://theconversation.com/space-tourism-20-years-in-the-making-is-finally-ready-for-launch-159606

https://www.space.com/future-of-space-tourism-op-ed

https://www.travelandleisure.com/trip-ideas/space-astronomy/space-tourism-is-here

 

The aerospace industry is about to see a new era of commercial space travel, and this time around, the company is planning for everyone.  Instead of going up in expensive rockets like Blue Origin or SpaceX, startups such as Space Perspective plan on taking capsules attached by large balloons into the stratosphere where they can provide inexpensive transportation that might be more appealing than other options available currently.

 

Space Tourism Without The Hefty Price Tag

Space Perspective offers the first space tourism experience that anyone can afford, and they're doing it with a company name straight out of science fiction. "We firmly believe that Space Perspective is going to become the most accessible way for travelers around this planet," says board member Anton Brevde from Prime Movers Lab (PML).

“We are confident that space tourism will soon become more accessible than ever with the introduction of Space Perspective,” said Brevde. “The company has already secured  millions in funding and is working hard towards their goal: to make it possible for everyone who wants adventure outside this world's atmosphere."

 

Innovation: The Key To Accessibility

Space Perspective has always been an innovator. They're the first company to design and build a stratospheric balloon system that features capsules for eight passengers, with pilots. With this funding they will be able to complete development on their new Spaceship Neptune - which is sure make history in its own right.  But there's even more happening here... Space Perspective doesn't expect to need any additional capital injection before commercial flights are expected.

Taver MacCallum, co-chief executive of Space Perspective said:  “It really shows the level of investor confidence that we have.  Being fully funded by essentially your original investor base is a huge vote of confidence.”

 

Testing, Testing

Space Perspective has already performed its first uncrewed high-altitude balloon flight, taking a full-size, but not full-weight mockup to an altitude of 33 kilometers. The company plans on spending the next year working on developing both system components and procedures for launching their project which MacCallum says will take advantage “of this new hybrid approach in aerospace engineering that allows us to not only test hardware,  but also software."

In late 2023, SpaceX will begin testing their new crewed vehicle with open-ended plans for test flights. In 2024 the first astronauts are expected to board one of these vehicles and fly them into orbit.

 

Adventure Without The Price Tag

It’s not every day that you get the opportunity to fly over 50 miles up in space. That is why Space Perspective has already collected 475 bookings, each secured with a deposit of $ 10-25K depending on how fast passengers board their plane.  The total cost for seats range from 125k all way down to just one dollar.  For people who prefer more insurance, but still want some adventure - ballooning could be an appropriate choice; however they won't experience anything like weightlessness or any high altitude opportunities whatsoever because these trips only go so far above ground level before coming back towards earth again.

 

But Space Perspective promises to offer a spectacular view of the curvature of Earth and darkness in space with its 6-hour ride. According to their plan, at 12 mph for 2 hours it will gradually rise before gliding apogee where you can enjoy your time up there as well as descending slowly before splashdown. You'll be one lucky person who gets scooped up by  ship’s crew like NASA does when they retrieve capsules from other space  launches.

 

A Similar Experience To Commercial Flight?

 

A first-class commercial flight of today’s major airlines is more like a Space Perspective ballooning experience. Customers will have access to WiFi and bars and there is no special training required, according to a company spokesperson. In fact, preflight safety briefings would be similar to what you can experience on any current commercial airline.

The draw of more accessible space travel is big business. According to reports commissioned from leading international management consultancy firms, the total addressable market for this industry could be worth up $250 billion or even higher with potential growth rates at 10% annually over an initial period until 2028 when they estimate that number will reach about half a trillion dollars.

Keep following us here as we continue to cover the latest news and developments in the world of commercialized space tourism.

 

Sources:

https://californianewstimes.com/space-perspective-raises-40m-series-a-for-stratospheric-balloon-rides-techcrunch/558481/

 

https://spacenews.com/space-perspective-raises-40-million-for-stratospheric-ballooning-system/

 

https://venturebeat.com/2021/10/14/space-perspective-raises-40m-for-balloons-that-can-take-people-into-space/

 

 

Although we have been living in the Space Age for more than 50 years, traveling into space is still a rare thing. Only about 600 individuals have gone over the Kármán line, which marks the start of space at roughly 62 miles above Earth, and they were all sent there by the US or another country's government. However, with the emergence of commercial spaceflight firms like Virgin Galactic and Space X, the ultimate frontier might soon be within reach of a much larger audience. In the next few years, spaceflight companies are aiming to launch private astronauts, often known as space tourists, on orbital or suborbital missions.

 

As space tourism takes momentum, adventurers will soon be able to get their excitement rush and crave space flight photos from the ultimate frontier. All you'll need is a little bit of patience, and a lot of cash in hand (for the spaceflight ticket of course). Here's a summary of the current situation.

 

Companies Offering Space Flights

Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin and Virgin Galactic, launched by Richard Branson, both provide short "suborbital" flights of a few minutes. The crew capsule detaches and passes the Karman line of 62 miles before landing back on Earth using three parachutes. Virgin Galactic launches a spacecraft from a huge carrier plane that takes off from a horizontal runway. The spacecraft rises to a height of almost 50 miles before falling back down. Up to six passengers can “unbuckle” from their seats in both instances to feel a few minutes of weightlessness and enjoy the view of Earth from space. Currently, more than 600 people have joined up for the Las Cruces, New Mexico-based firm, including Leonardo DiCaprio, Ashton Kutcher, Katy Perry, and famous scientist Stephen Hawking. The cost of a ticket is $250,000, and registration is available to anyone with that sort of cash available (I didn’t say you should have a lot of cash in hand for nothing).

 

Blue Origin on the other hand has earned approximately $100 million through selling tickets for future passenger flights, according to the billionaire Jeff Bezos. He even mentions that people’s demand to fly to space is way too high. Blue Origin now has two New Shepard rocket launchers on hand, one for research cargo flights and the other for passenger flights, at its Texas facility.

 

 What to Expect As a Space Tourist?

For starters, the thrill of a rocket journey and the opportunity to experience weightlessness is what to expect. The rewards are also great since it’s something once we used to dream about and now becoming a reality. However, people believe that the most significant advantage of traveling into space is gaining a stunning new perspective on life about our planet. It's a shift in the viewpoint that might have far-reaching consequences not only for individuals but also for society as a whole. Virgin Galactic CEO George Whitesides believes that over the next 100 years, a planetary perspective will be critical in addressing humanity's biggest challenges. He even mentions that his company feels motivated to take others up to view that view, which is said to radically change one's perspective about the earth.

 

So space tourism, can bring some drastic changes in one’s life, and also some great viewpoints of earth. Also, people would be able to travel quickly from one country to another.

 

What Type of Process to go through?

The possibility of a space tourism business appears to be quite intriguing. However, it offers a less difficult road to space than that taken by astronauts, who must complete higher education, extensive training, and highly competitive selection procedures. Because only a few nations have access to human spaceflight projects, astronauts must also be of the proper nationality. Only the rich countries who have spaceflight headquarters or companies within their country could currently benefit from space traveling. Human spaceflight requires a high level of safety. Approximately 3,400 functioning satellites and 128 million bits of debris are currently in orbit. Each day, hundreds of collision risks are averted by costly and complex movements or, if the risk is low enough, by operators waiting and hoping for the best.

 

Countries will need to implement tougher requirements to de-orbit satellites at the end of their lifetimes so that they burn upon landing if we add more human spaceflight to this traffic. It is currently allowed to de-orbit a satellite after 25 years or to place it in an underused orbit. However, this simply serves to postpone the problem in the future. Nations must also follow the 2019 United Nations guidelines on the “Long-Term Sustainability of Outer Space Activities” if they want their country individuals to travel to space. Or, do space travel business.

 

Sources:

https://theconversation.com/want-to-become-a-space-tourist-you-finally-can-if-you-have-250-000-and-a-will-to-sign-your-life-away-160543

https://www.popsci.com/science/blue-origin-space-tourism/

https://www.cnbc.com/2021/07/20/jeff-bezos-blue-origin-space-tourist-sales-approaching-100-million.html

https://www.thedailystar.net/toggle/news/how-can-you-become-space-tourist-2134786

 

No one is sure how rocket launches and re-entering space rubbish affect the Earth's atmosphere, but that could change shortly.

Above the weather. Other than 40 kilometres above sea level, the stratosphere is where rockets launch the stuff. About black carbon, or 600 tonnes of soot, would be released yearly from the 1000 launches, less than the current aeroplane emissions and other sources. On the other hand, Plane soot forms at low enough altitudes in the atmosphere to be washed away by rain in a matter of days or weeks. It can stay there for up to ten years because it's out of the essentials.

According to the findings, black carbon raised temperatures at similarly the south and north poles. For many years, the growth was around 0.2 degrees Celsius, but it peaked around 1 degree Celsius during the winter in each hemisphere. Increased temperatures led to melting sea ice at both poles, particularly in Antarctica, where the summer ice cover condensed by 18%.

Space tourism is a viable option; however, what about the environmental consequences? Stable nitrogen in the air is transformed to reactive nitrogen oxides due to the extraordinarily high temperatures experienced during launch and re-entry (due to the returning craft's protective heat shields burning away). These harmful gases and elements pollute the atmosphere in numerous ways. The ozone layer protects life on Earth from damaging ultraviolet pollution, but in the stratosphere, nitrogen oxides and compounds generated from water vapour breakdown turn ozone into oxygen and deplete the layer.

According to Marais, it generates nitrogen oxides, which, once out into the stratosphere, can reduce the ozone layer.

According to Marais, the Russian Soyuz spacecraft, which presently transports men to and from the International Space Station, and Elon Musk's SpaceX rocket both use watery rocket fuel, but solid rocket fuel systems like Virgin Galactic have much more damaging impacts.

She's not the first scientist to say that space travel poses a hazard to the ozone layer. She called solid rocket fuel the "worst of the worst." Because of the chlorine and nitrogen oxides they emit, they significantly influence the ozone layer.

Several environmental consequences of space vehicle takeoffs have been studied. In an examination of the survey on space launch announcements printed last year in the Journal of Cleaner Production, Jessica Dallas composed that "the depletion of stratospheric ozone is the greatest studied and most instantly concerning."

Martin Ross and James Vedda Analysis About Space Pollution. Researchers at The Aerospace Corporation Martin Ross and James Vedda said in a report from 2019 that contemporary alarms about rocket releases are similar to primary fears about space debris, which has subsequently been recognized as a hazard to the space business.

There is an important reflection of the space debris issue today in launch vehicle emissions. The entire environment is badly affected by rocket engine exhaust discharged into the stratosphere during ascent to orbit," they said.

Both chlorine emissions and particles like soot and alumina ejected into the upper atmosphere by rockets pose a risk to the ozone layer and can absorb and reflect solar radiation, fluctuating both the upper atmosphere's and the Earth's surface's temperature. The ozone layer could be harmed as a result of this upper-atmosphere heating.

Space tourism may have unanticipated climate impacts. Given Virgin Galactic's plans to transport paying tourists to the edge of space many times daily, some experts find this alarming. A single Virgin Galactic suborbital space tourism flight, lasting roughly an hour and a half, can cause as much pollution as a 10-hour transatlantic journey, according to Dallas Kasaboski, Northern Sky Research's chief analyst is a space consultant with over a decade of experience.

Of fact, the flies used by Virgin Galactic aren't the only ones to blame. Maggi claims that all rocket motors using hydrocarbon fuels produce soot. Toxic metal compounds and hydrochloric acid are emitted together with aluminium oxide particles from solid rocket engines, such as those employed in NASA's space shuttle boosters in the past.

The BE-3 engine in Blue Origin's New Shepard suborbital rocket uses an unusual mix of liquid hydrogen and oxygen to generate propulsion. According to specialists, the BE-3 emits water and a few minor combustion products compared to other rocket engines.

https://www.newscientist.com/article/dn19626-space-tourism-could-have-big-impact-on-climate/

https://www.ctvnews.ca/climate-and-environment/space-travel-is-open-for-business-but-what-about-the-environmental-impact-1.5506132

https://www.space.com/environmental-impact-space-tourism-flights

 

A trip into space is still extremely rare, even though we've lived in the Space Age for more than 50 years. Around 600 people have crossed the Kármán line, which is 62 miles above the Earth's surface, and they were all there at the behest of the United States or another country's government.

At first, a trip on one of these rockets will set you back several hundred thousand dollars. As a result, only the richest individuals will be able to partake in the experience. Advances in rocket and capsule design, on the other hand, are expected to cut the cost so that even those with modest means can purchase a ticket.

According to some estimates, the worldwide space tourism sector is expected to be worth more than $34 billion by 2021.

What may space travelers expect when they travel to other planets? For starters, the thrill of a rocket journey and the opportunity to go weightless. And, of course, there are the indescribable bragging rights. However, some believe that going to space will give you a fresh perspective on life on Earth, especially given how delicate the blue marble is. It's a shift in perspective that could have far-reaching effects on society as a whole.

Flying High. A suborbital space flight by Virgin Galactic will provide consumers with six minutes of weightlessness and an unparalleled view of the universe. According to the website, more than 600 customers have joined up with Las Cruces, a New Mexico-based startup, including Leonardo DiCaprio, Katy Perry, Ashton Kutcher, and renowned physicist Stephen Hawking. Entry into the competition costs $250,000. Anyone who has that much money on hand can sign up.

There will be numerous methods to pay for a space flight in 2021. What's the price tag on this? Next year, it's possible that space tourism may become a reality. These organizations are either already selling tickets to the general public or will shortly.

How much does Axiom space flight cost? According to their mission statement, axiom, the first commercial space station, will be built by Axiom Space. Meanwhile, an agreement has been reached to send a private citizenry to the International Space Station (ISS) in October 2021 using SpaceX's Crew Dragon spacecraft.

At least three paying astronauts will be sent to the International Space Station on Axiom's first crewed voyage, named Ax1. According to reports, each ticket is worth $55 million. While the number of people who can afford to buy tickets at that price may seem little, it is estimated that approximately 75,000 American households have that much money. Axiom believes that ticket sales to outer space are just getting started. The business plans to deploy three crews to the International Space Station each year in the foreseeable future.

How much does Virgin Galactic's space flight cost? Virgin Galactic's objective is to be the "world's first commercial spaceline," and Spaceport America in southern New Mexico will be the company's starting point for regular flights. CEO Richard Branson will be the first non-professional pilot to fly on Spaceship Unity when regular service begins in early 2021.

Early adopters had to fork over $250,000 to get their hands on the car. And more than 600 people have already joined up at that fee to be "Future Astronauts." Nevertheless, Virgin Galactic has announced that it expects to boost its prices shortly, it has not yet been disclosed what the final price will be for this product.

How much does Boeing space flight cost? Boeing NASA chose SpaceX and Boeing in 2014 to obtain multibillion-dollar contracts to build spacecraft that may transport passengers to the International Space Station (ISS). Earlier this year, SpaceX's completed the first crewed mission under the Commercial Crew Program contract. On the other hand, Boeing has yet to successfully launch and return its Starliner spacecraft from the International Space Station. The first test flight failed when they failed to reach the space station, and subsequent NASA reviews identified various issues that needed to be addressed.

However, the legendary aerospace corporation will technically ferry private people to and from the ISS whenever Boeing begins operations there. NASA has remained mum on the subject, but they've stated that they'd be willing to host paying guests for $35,000 per night.

How much does Blue Origin space flight cost? Blue Origin, founded by Jeff Bezos of Amazon, aims to take paying customers into space and have a lunar lander called Blue Moon ready by 2024.

The future passenger vehicle will be a reusable New Shepard rocket with a passenger capsule attached to the top. An estimated $200,000 to $300,000 in tickets will be required for entry.

How much does NASA space flight cost? NASA is also making use of these commercial improvements in space travel. The first crewed missions for SpaceX and Boeing are scheduled for 2020, with contracts with NASA to transport astronauts to and from the International Space Station (ISS). Tourists may be able to visit the ISS starting in 2020.

NASA has indicated that private astronauts will remain onboard the station for $35,000 each night. While this does not include the cost of getting there, it is estimated that journeys to the International Space Station will cost up to $60 million each.

https://www.nbcnews.com/mach/science/so-you-want-be-space-tourist-here-are-your-options-ncna784166

https://www.rmg.co.uk/stories/blog/how-much-does-ticket-space-cost-future-space-tourism

https://astronomy.com/news/2020/08/six-ways-to-buy-a-ticket-to-space-in-2021

 

On Monday, Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin presented plans for a space station called Orbital Reef, which would be created in conjunction with several firms. For the commercial space station, the company has partnered with Boeing, Sierra Space, and others.

On Monday, Jeff Bezos' Blue Origin presented plans for a space station named Orbital Reef. According to CNBC, it would be constructed in partnership with several space corporations and launched between 2025 - 2030 respectively. As per insights, it was revealed on Oct. 25 that the business partners for this project aim to develop Orbital Reef, a commercial off-Earth settlement that will be operational by the late 2020s. The Orbital Reef station, which can accommodate up to 10 individuals, might also greet tourists with a unique welcome. Sierra Space (a branch of Sierra Nevada Corporation's aerospace contractor) is the station's primary partner, with Boeing, Redwire Space, and Genesis Engineering also joining the team.

Therefore, there might be a slew of private successors to the International Space Station. As per the insights, National government bodies, commercial enterprises, and space tourists are among the potential clients for Orbital Reef, according to project team members. The outpost would first supplement, but eventually replace, the International Space Station (ISS), which is scheduled to be abandoned between 2028 and 2030.

 

About the Company’s Business Module

Orbital Reef is a space industry partnership comprising some major players. Blue Origin, founded by Jeff Bezos, will supply certain modules, and it's New Glenn heavy-lift rocket, which is set to fly for the first time in late 2022, is the major launcher for station components. Orbital Reef operations and maintenance will be handled by Boeing, which is a significant participant in the ISS program. The corporation will also offer science modules, as well as convey people and freight to the outpost via its Starliner capsule. Boeing has a NASA contract to transport agency humans to and from the ISS aboard Starliner, which is preparing for a critical unscrewed test voyage to the orbiting lab in the first half of 2022. Orbital Reef's primary living quarters will be Sierra Space's extendable Large Integrated Flexible Environment (LIFE) modules. According to corporate spokespeople, the corporation's Dream Chaser space aircraft will also be accessible for freight and personnel transport.

If we talk about the comparison between the two, the ISS has an interior capacity of 32,333 cubic feet, which is the same as a Boeing 747 airplane. The habitat module for the four-person Starlab will have a capacity of 12,000 cubic feet. But, if all goes according to plan, Orbital Reef will continue to expand over time, with many more modules ultimately being added. Members of the project team want it to serve a large number of clients all over the world.

Boeing will build Orbital Reef's science-focused module, as well as administrate the station's operations and provide maintenance engineering. During a conference call, executives from the team's firms declined to specify how much they plan to invest in Orbital Reef. As per the article, Blue Origin vice president Brent Sherwood stated that the corporation would not reveal specific pricing for the Orbital Reef space station due to commercial reasons.

 

Launch Of Another Private Space Station 

Blue Origin has previously worked on a crewed lunar lander for NASA's HLS project alongside major space companies including Lockheed Martin, Northrop Grumman, and Draper. Despite obtaining a $579 million prize for early development, the Blue Origin-led team was defeated by Elon Musk's SpaceX for the $2.9 billion contracts earlier this year. Blue Origin has since filed a lawsuit against NASA, seeking that the lunar lander award is withdrawn. Nanoracks, Voyager Space, and Lockheed Martin unveiled Starlab, a private space station that is projected to be operational by 2027.

 

NASA Intake On This Project

NASA is aiming to support this project. The Commercial LEO Destinations (CLD), a two-phase initiative patterned on NASA's successful technique for getting private cargo and crew deliveries to the ISS, intends to support the creation of Orbital Reef, Starlab, Axiom Station, and other commercial outposts. According to sources, NASA will seek multiple sponsored Space Act Agreements in the first phase for early concept development of commercial destinations. In the second phase, NASA wants to acquire destination services as soon as they become available.

Members of the Orbital Reef team are hoping for NASA funding in the future, but they aren't holding their breath for it. In other words, they just don’t want to wait. That’s why they are investing a significant amount of their own money in the project. Sherwood wouldn't specify how much the commercial outpost will cost, but he did claim it will be "at least an order of magnitude cheaper" than the ISS, which costs over $100 billion.

 

Sources:

https://remonews.com/canada/orbital-reef-should-be-ready-in-2030-amazon-founder-designs-space-station-guide/

https://www.cnbc.com/2021/10/25/jeff-bezos-blue-origin-unveils-ocean-reef-private-space-station.html

https://www.republicworld.com/technology-news/science/blue-origin-aims-to-launch-orbital-reef-a-private-space-station-between-2025-2030.html

https://www.space.com/blue-origin-unveils-orbital-reef-private-space-station

 

 

In recent years, spaceflight has ceased to be strictly scientific in nature and has become commercial. Important private companies have started an interesting race to develop space tourism, which is why now the concepts of orbital flight and suborbital flight are heard more frequently.

Differences between orbital travel and suborbital travel

And although both concepts are usually mentioned in the same conversations or topics, they are substantially different. Their main differences lie in the trajectory and the speed that each one implies.

The trajectory

On the one hand, the trajectory of an orbital flight travels the circumference of the planet constantly, with a speed such that it can travel around the Earth infinitely. On the other hand, the trajectory of a suborbital flight begins with the takeoff of the spacecraft, which goes out into space and draws a retreating arc to return to Earth. Regardless of how far the spacecraft traveled when it went out into outer space, it was never in orbit. That is, it never went around the planet, therefore it is classified as a suborbital tour.

The speed

When it comes to speed, a spacecraft that is going to make an orbital trip needs to reach what is called "orbital speed". For its part, a rocket that is going to execute a suborbital flight needs a speed much lower than that.

Now, what is known as orbital speed is the speed with which an object must move in order to keep orbiting around the Earth or any other planet.

To get a much clearer idea, suppose that a spacecraft must orbit our planet 200 kilometers away. To achieve this, the spacecraft must reach a speed of 28,000 kilometers per hour.

If it is a ship that must perform a suborbital flight, the required speed is much lower since it must not reach the orbit of the planet. As we already mentioned, this type of vehicle only leaves the Earth, reaches a certain height in outer space and returns to our planet when its engines are turned off. Suppose that the spacecraft wants to reach 200 kilometers from the Earth, to achieve this it requires moving at a speed of 6,000 kilometers per hour, which is considerably lower than the speed required by an orbital transport.

The technical aspect

Another aspect to consider is that due to the speed required to achieve orbital flights, these are much more complex at a technical level, which translates into higher costs when compared to suborbital flights. That is why suborbital tours are becoming more attractive for companies seeking to develop the trips to outer space.

And although these do not revolve around the planet, they provide a very interesting route since when they reach the maximum point of the arc of flight, the ship reaches weightlessness as it begins to return to Earth providing its passengers with a free fall and an unmatched view.

Space tourism a current reality

And although the technological and monetary difference between one type of flight and another is notable, private companies focused on space travel have managed to offer both options to their customers. Of course, these flights are extremely expensive in the first place, but it is hoped that as this industry develops, tickets may become more affordable.

Regarding the achievements made by the main companies involved in the development of trips to outer space, we have the following:

 

  • On the one hand, Richard Branson's Virgin Galactic offers suborbital flights that can be more easily afforded by those with enough money to travel off-planet. In fact, Branson himself traveled in the company of other passengers on what was considered the first space tourism flight.

 

  • On the other hand, Elon Musk's company, Space X, has managed to send the first civilian crew into outer space on an orbital flight. The four crew members circled our planet for three days, enjoying this form of space travel at its best.

 

Both companies continue their advance when it comes to take tourists off the planet, and we are fully confident that we will continue to witness what both can achieve in the short and medium term.

Without a doubt, human beings have already managed to develop the necessary technology to gradually begin to conquer space. Commercial flights outside the Earth are already a palpable reality, although affordable for few. However, we hope that the tourism in outer space industry will reach higher levels in the technological aspect, and that it will be much more accessible for the thousands of people who dream of traveling to the stars.

 

Sources:

https://elpais.com/ciencia/2021-07-20/las-ofertas-de-turismo-espacial.html
https://www.dw.com/es/vuelo-de-turistas-espaciales-culmina-en-un-exitoso-amerizaje/a-59228308
https://www.dw.com/es/spacex-promete-turismo-espacial-antes-de-concluir-2021/a-56411536

https://www.space.com/suborbital-orbital-flight.html https://study.com/academy/lesson/orbital-vs-suborbital-human-space-flight.html blogs.scientificamerican.com/life-unbounded/basic-rocket-science-sub-orbital-versus-orbital/

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